The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. Carthage declined and Rome declared war in March 218 BCE. Rome Builds Navy Fleet. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. Contributions are tax deductible to the extent permitted by law. Last modified May 29, 2016. Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. Accordingly, Hamilcar Barca was despatched in 237 BCE to expand Carthaginian territory, which he did, establishing his base at Gades (Cadiz) and founding a new city of Acra Leuce. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, and it was he who attacked Carthage on home soil, beating Hannibal and delivering final victory. The Romans had never been a naval power, and needed to build a massive fleet. Syphax would later defect to the Carthaginians, and the Roman Senate was initially against an invasion, but eventually Scipio got his backing and was ready to strike at the soft underbelly of the Carthaginian held territories in Africa, just as Hannibal was doing in southern Italy. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal … The outbreak of the Second Punic War began when Hannibal moved north across Ebro to begin his historic march over the Alps. The strategy of Fabius, although interrupted occasionally by zealous commanders eager for glory in their one year of office as consul, was slowly working and, relentlessly, the Romans backed Hannibal into an ever-smaller pocket so that by 207 BCE he controlled only Bruttium. While the first two wars were among the largest ever fought at the time and took place all over Europe and North Africa, most of the Third Punic War took place in and around Tunisia. The Carthaginian general was faced with the problem that he simply did not have the manpower to keep control of all his newly acquired territory. Nevertheless, Carthage recovered from the Second Punic War relatively quickly and coins and trade goods from this period have be… Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The forces involved, and the casualties suffered by both sides, were far … Roman Beach Attackby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. Hasdrubal escaped to Italy but the remains of his army were defeated at the Metaurus River the following year. One major result is that Carthage lost plain and simple. Rome forced Carthage to pay for damages after the war, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. The Mercenary War & The Second Punic War . Accordingly, Hannibal left Hasdrubal Barca (son of Hamilcar Barca) in charge of things in Spain and audaciously crossed the Alps in 15 days. At the beginning of the war both sides had been roughly equal in fighting forces on land. Hannibal surprised them by deciding to invade Italy. Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. Hasdrubal the Fair took over from Hamilcar Barca following his death by drowning in 229 BCE and added another 10,000 infantry to his force and 8,000 cavalry, while his war elephants also doubled to 200.   Terms. The war began in 264 B.C.E. But what were the results of the wars? The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians … All rights reserved. Image Credit: shorthistory One of the biggest event of this war was Hannibal Barca’s supreme riseand subsequent defeat. The Iberians now gave up the Carthaginian cause and Rome had access to the enemy’s silver mines to boost its war effort. Discuss the differences between the governments and militaries of Rome and Carthage that account for, Discussion Forum unit 5.docx HIST 1421.docx, University of the People • ART HIST HIST 1421, Discussion forum unit 5 06-Mars-2019 -final.docx, Copyright © 2020. ...The Punic Wars were 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage that lasted from 264 to 146 B.C. Books Cornelius Scipio Calvus were killed and their armies seriously defeated in the Tader valley in 211 BCE. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. Click card to see definition 👆 The Roman fleets and legions achieved victory over the Carthaginians in 241 B.C., adding western Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica to the growing Roman Empire Click again to see term 👆 … Spain, the original flashpoint of the war, was now cleared of Carthaginian forces. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… The Second Punic War was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Rome might have feared a land battle but they were still masters of the seas, and this meant that Hannibal could not be resupplied. The Start of the First Punic War. Territories During the Second Punic Warby Javierfv1212 (CC BY-SA). Early in the spring of 218 BC, Hannibal set out from Carthago Nova, … The second Punic War lasted 218-201 B.C.for 17 years. This may have been because he lacked outside support but also because it was probably never his intention to annihilate Rome. This action had the consent of the Carthaginian government but it would prove one move too far for the Romans who, having by now dealt with the troublesome northern Gauls and Illyria, demanded Hannibal be handed over for suitable punishment. The Second Punic War. With reinforcements coming from an army led by Hasdrubal, the Carthaginians and their Numidian allies managed to muster another army of 30,000 infantry. For Carthage it would be the very last throw of the dice. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. In the Second Punic War, to neutralise Carthage and gain dominanace of the Western Mediterranean. When Scipio attacked Utica, the city proved more resilient than expected, and Carthage, meanwhile, assembled an army under Gisgo, son of Hasdrubal. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. Hannibal seemed unstoppable. In 226 BCE Hasdrubal had signed an agreement with Rome, concerned at Carthage’s expanding empire, not to cross the River Ebro in southern Spain, but Hannibal, now in overall command in Spain, was more ambitious. The expedition was not without cost. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia River, Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, Paullus, at Cannae, and Scipio, at Zama. This huge force moved towards Utica to relieve the siege in 203 BCE. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. In 205 BCE, after being appointed consul, Scipio crossed the Mediterranean to Sicily and strengthened his army. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War Hannibal along with a massive, 3 out of 4 people found this document helpful. The Second Punic War was lost and Hannibal sued for peace terms. Hannibal once again released Italian prisoners but dealt harshly with Roman captives to emphasise he was at war with only the latter and local communities were welcome to join him. Marcellus shipped large amounts of Greek art back to Rome in a novel method of impressing the populace with his success. Hamilcar Barca was recalled from Sicily and he joined Hanno the Great, who had recently made significant conquests in Libya, to quash the rebellion. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Carthage was destroyed after a relatively brief and one-sided war. History (code 01) What were the outcomes of the second Punic War August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. Short and informative. These defeats now put the city of Carthage itself in danger and necessitated the return of Hannibal from Italy to defend the homeland. How did the outcome the punic wars lead to the rise of rome? Battle of Mylae. Hannibal desperately tried to conquer a port city, notably Neapolis (Naples) and Tarentum (Taranto), but all attempts failed, as did repeated attacks on Nola. 12 Dec 2020. Cartwright, Mark. License. Once again, though, Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources in men, ships, and money, combined with skills on the battlefield and command of the seas, had ensured Rome could replenish losses more easily than Carthage. Then in 221 BCE a new face arrived on the scene: Hannibal, eldest son of Hamilcar Barca. Carthage sent an army to Liguria in northern Italy in 205 BCE. ... Second Punic War begins. A Roman army was then defeated in Gaul in 216 BCE, but their fortunes slowly began to improve. He supplemented his own force with local recruits and amassed a 50,000-strong army with a corps of 100 elephants. The North African Berber kingdom of Numidia (202-40 BCE) was originally... Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE), the brilliant Carthaginian general... Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with.   Privacy Realising they were up against one of history’s greatest commanders, Rome changed tactics and adopted a policy of avoiding Hannibal in direct battle, instead fighting only his allies. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. "Second Punic War." Hannibal’s mix of Italian veterans and new recruits numbered some 45,000 men and included 2,000 Numidian cavalry from their ally Tychaeus. Hannibal had employed his customary tactics of high mobility in the field too and enveloped the enemy while his cavalry attacked the rear. ” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. 20,000 Carthaginians had fallen while Rome suffered fewer than 5,000 fatalities. Soon Rome had the largest fleet in the Mediterranean. Carthage sent an army of 23,000 to the island in 213 BCE but could not prevent the city falling into the hands of Marcus Claudius Marcellus, a veteran of the First Punic War, in 212 BCE. They were never really helpful militarily to the Carthaginians. Carthaginian War Elephantsby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). An army of 13,500 men and corps of elephants were redirected by Carthage to Spain instead of Hannibal in Italy. It would be a lesson well-learned and repeated again and again by the Roman army, now well-practised at fighting in multiple theatres simultaneously. The Roman and Numidian cavalry then hit Hannibal’s forces in the rear, and victory was theirs. You get a 10 score! Wherever Hannibal was not, the Romans would attack. Cite This Work Tribute in money if not men was extracted from local cities and new silver mines were worked. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 29 May 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Hannibal’s father had made his son swear never to be a friend of Rome, and with this solid platform of wealth and arms, he did not disappoint for the commander, still only 26, would become Rome’s greatest ever foe. Rise and Fall of Hannibal. Another victory came near Lake Trasimene in June 217 BCE where 15,000 Romans were killed and 10,000 captured. Remember to cite your sources. Meanwhile, the war was widening. Hannibal, along with a massive army and the inclusion of elephants, fought a battle against the Roman army at Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene. Rather, his campaigns in Italy sought to compel Rome to recognise Carthage’s claim on its empire. Their replacement in Spain was the proconsul Publius Cornelius Scipio whose later exploits would allow him to add an ‘Africanus’ to his name. With his genius, Hannibal Barca, though, gained much ground, but eventually lost to the Romans in this war. Rome entered the Second Punic War as the dominant city in Italy..., yet emerged as a world power'. The Romans took over the Carthaginian mantle as the rulers of the seas and so, if Carthage were to wrest control back from its arch-enemy, it would have to fight on land, and that required money, lots of it. Under Philip V, the Macedonians proved no match for the Roman general Marcus Valerius Laevinus, and Macedon was forced out of the Adriatic and into a war with the Aetolian Confederacy in north-west Greece. Outcomes from the Second Punic War The second Púnic war (herein after referred to as, “the War”) came to a close in 201 BCE, following Scípio’s victory over Hánnibal at the battle of Záma. In the First Punic War, to gain control of Sicily. The raids were hugely successful and devastated the enemy. Scipio fielded 30,000 infantry and 5,500 cavalry, which included 6,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry from Masinissa. Hannibal had defeated several large Roman armies, but Rome itself, as in the First Punic War, seemed immune to the losses. However, all the Latin colonies and central Italy remained loyal to Rome and this meant that Hannibal’s new acquisitions had to be constantly defended. Meanwhile, Rome seized control of Sardinia which had been Carthage’s most important source of grain. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. Back in Spain, Scipio Africanus was gaining local allies, and he defeated a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal at Baecula in 208 BCE. Luckily, the Romans captured a Carthaginian ship and copied their design. Further, Carthage could not make war without Rome’s permission, had to recognise the territories of the new Numidian king Masinissa, and pay in reparations to Rome the huge sum of 10,000 talents over the next half century. In typical fashion, the Carthaginian general used the terrain to his advantage, this time putting his 50,000 troops close to the River Aufidus; he constrained the eight legions of the enemy to do likewise and thus restricted their possibility of manoeuvre and gain advantage from their greater numbers. Rome had a far superior navy, but Carthage had the best commander in Hannibal. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The Second Punic War was fought between Rome, Carthage, and their mutual allies. The Second Punic War was underway. And, in the final battle at Zama, Scipio had shown what could be achieved by adapting standard tactics to defeat specific enemies. Hannibal's Major Battles in Italyby Frank Martini (CC BY-SA). The Second Punic War brought about the downfall of the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the supreme power in the Mediterranean region for the coming 600 years. Rome was reeling but Hannibal was on his own, and he fatefully decided not to attack Rome itself. In the so-called Truceless War (also Mercenary War) between 241 and 237 BCE, Carthage had to put down a joint rebellion of mercenary troops, understandably upset at not having been paid for their efforts in the first Punic War, Libyan groups, and several cities such as Tunis and Utica. The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. Disclaimer Regarding Use of Course Material. This was the so-called ‘Fabian policy’ after Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, the dictator of 217 BCE, who earned the nickname ‘Cunctator’ (Delayer). Macedon too was brought into the war. In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. In 215 BCE Rome attacked southern Spain, dramatically defeating Hasdrubal at the battle of Ibera in 215 BCE. The Second Punic War After their defeat in the first Punic War, Carthage regrouped and poised for another attack. Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. However, by the end of the second century, large numbers of slaves were pouring into Rome, either as prisoners of war or purchased abroad by the new wealthy class of Romans who now employed large staffs of domestic servants or invested as slaves as business ventures. The 25-year old general sailed from Ostia and quickly made his mark on the war by a shock capture of the main Carthaginian supply base and treasury in Spain, Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena) in 209 BCE. After seventeen years of war with great loss of lives from both sides, Carthage was defeated by Rome view the full answer This force consisted of 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, and Gisgo was almost immediately joined by the Numidian Syphax with his army of 50,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. The Third Punic War (149 – 146 BC) was the last in the trilogy of conflicts between Rome and Carthage. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? Scipio’s cavalry wings crushed the enemy and the African infantry collapsed. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. The War with Hannibal: The History of Rome from Its Foundation, Books... Hannibal’s War: A Military History of the Second Punic War. Rome, despite having a dangerous enemy on its doorstep, was tenacious if nothing else and rejected all offers of a peace deal. Scipio preferred to focus on Spain and won another victory, again against a more numerous opponent, at Ilipa in 206 BCE. this was the beginning of a real 'empire'. After three bad losses worse was to follow for Rome in August 216 BCE when Hannibal, moving into southern Italy, won a great victory against a much larger opposing army (80,000 men) at Cannae in Apulia (modern Puglia) in the heel of the Italian peninsula. They were then herded back in the direction of the Carthaginians to cause havoc there. Almost inevitably, Mago was unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army was defeated in Cisalpine Gaul in 203 BCE. The Carthaginian forces were led by Hannibal … In addition, Scipio had conquered Tunis. The difficult journey lost him a significant portion of his army but the losses were more to do with fighting hostile Gallic tribes and desertions than the elements. In the summer of 202 BCE, the war was very much back on again and the two sides would clash in one final decisive battle. The third and final war lasted 49-146 B.C, for 3 years. While with the Carthaginians, their general/leader for the war was a military genius. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 May 2016. Rome, with its greatest enemy crushed, was now, and would remain for centuries, the unchallenged master of the Mediterranean. Carthage would briefly rise again for a Third Punic War 50 years later but its position as a great Mediterranean power was now lost forever. Before Carthage could think about Rome, it first had to deal with the continued unrest closer to home. The First Punic War had been tremendously costly to both sides but Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources, especially its capacity to renew large naval fleets meant that, ultimately, Carthage could not compete with the Mediterranean’s newest superpower. After a period of hesitant peace negotiations, which may only have been offered for Scipio to gain intelligence on the enemy positions, the Roman general divided his force in two and attacked the camps of Syphax and Gisgo at night. The Socii Most of the leadership in Cartha… Hannibal rose to become a great leader of the Carthaginians that can be regarded as a huge spectacle of the war. He had set off with 90,000 soldiers and 12,000 cavalry, and on arrival he had at his disposal only 20,000 men and half his original cavalry. He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. Copyright © University of the People 2018. The outcome of the First Punic War was a resounding victory to Rome and the Carthage leadership signing a peace treaty advising as such. • the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. Outcome- In the Second Punic War, the incomparable Carthaginian general Hannibal attacked Italy and scored extraordinary triumphs at Lake Trasimene and Cannae before his inevitable destruction on acco view the full answer. The final outcome of the Second Punic War was the defeat of Hannibal and the conquest of Carthage. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. The result of this spectacular campaign was that most of the city-states of southern Italy defected to the Carthaginian cause, including Italy’s second most important city, Capua. Before leaving Spain, however, Hannibal was well aware that Roman forces intended for him would try to meet him there. Carthage made overtures for peace in 203 BCE, perhaps only to allow Hannibal time to come back home as indicated by their treatment of a Roman transport fleet blown off course in 202 BCE. Rome then could establish firm control over the island by 210 BCE. Carthaginian territory was then turned into the province of Africa by the Roman. Then, in 204 BCE, with a force of around 30,000 men and 440 ships, he crossed to North Africa in three days. (Punic Wars, 2009) However, the Romans retaliated, winning engagements fought at Spain and North Africa due to the leadership of Publius Cornelius Scipio. 1. Keep up the good work. Scipio then made allies of two Numidian princes, Syphax and Masinissa, in preparation for his plan to take the war to Africa. 50,000 of the enemy were killed compared to 5,700 on Carthaginian side, most of those being Gauls. The First Punic War had shown that Rome could not be defeated from the outside, but perhaps fighting in its own territory and stirring up rebellions, it might be defeated from within. University of the People is a 501(c)(3) not for profit organization. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. In October 202 BCE, the armies of Hannibal and Scipio met on a plain in western Tunisia near Naraggara. Web. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. Course Hero, Inc. Two strategic mistakes which would be regretted by the Carthaginians. "Second Punic War." Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? The theatres of war in Spain, Sicily, and Italy were now almost played out and attention turned to Africa. The first Punic War lasted from 264-241 B.C. So the Second Punic War, largest conflict on antiquity, is mainly known by epic battles like Cannae or Zama and great leaders – Hannibal Barca and Scipio Africanus. This preview shows page 33 - 34 out of 34 pages. The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean. From an army to Liguria in northern Italy and the African infantry collapsed great leader of the Second Punic,! To cause havoc there despite facing armies twice the size of his army was then in. He supplemented his own force in an unsuccessful attempt to take the War both sides been. Of his army was defeated in the direction of the War to attack Rome.. 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