August 2004 Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include three food crops of high economic importance, the potato, the tomato and the eggplant (aubergine, brinjal). The majority of species (about 1800) are non tuber bearing. [19][20][21] Similar names are widespread in other languages, such as the Icelandic term eggaldin or the Welsh planhigyn ŵy. Sometimes fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also added, creating a dish called begun bhorta. Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices, and then slow cooked gives the South Asian dish baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. How to Plant Potatoes in a Home Garden. Long median and short chromosomes are distinguished at It also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as well as numerous plants cultivated for their ornamental flowers and fruit. A much wider range of shapes, sizes, and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. From Greek, the word was borrowed into Italian and medieval Latin, and onwards into French. These forms also gave rise to the Caribbean English melongene. An actual S. violaceum, an unrelated plant described by Ortega, included Dunal's S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. The Hobson-Jobson dictionary comments that 'probably there is no word of the kind which has undergone such extraordinary variety of modifications, whilst retaining the same meaning, as this'.[26]. Slim cultivars in purple-black skin include 'Little Fingers', 'Ichiban', 'Pingtung Long', and 'Tycoon', In green skin, 'Louisiana Long Green' and 'Thai (Long) Green'. Parmigiana di melanzane, eggplant parmesan. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants to reduce pest pressure. They can be spectacular centerpieces in large containers and very effective in flower garden settings. Tasting Korean Fare in Beijing", "Fuss-free stir-fried eggplants, a perfect side dish", "The Happy Home Cook: Rellenong Talong (Stuffed Eggplant)", https://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/vangi-bhaat-recipe/, "How to Grow Eggplant in Cooler Climates", "Growing Eggplant Successfully in Cooler Climates – Garden Mentors", "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas", "Eggplant production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and genetic constitution", "Total Phenolic Concentration and Browning Susceptibility in a Collection of Different Varietal Types and Hybrids of Eggplant: Implications for Breeding for Higher Nutritional Quality and Reduced Browning", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eggplant&oldid=993466808, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking in-text citations from December 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. According to the entry brinjal in the Oxford English Dictionary, the Sanskrit word vātin-gāna denoted 'the class (that removes) the wind-disorder (windy humour)': that is, vātin-gāna came to be the name for eggplants because they were thought to cure flatulence. Native to the Neotropical region, Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back, commonly known as the solanum or pepper whitefly, is an emerging pest of pepper and many other horticultural crops in the United States. However, since eggplants can be particularly susceptible to pests such as whiteflies, they are sometimes grown with slightly less susceptible plants, such as chili pepper, as a sacrificial trap crop. insanum (L.) Banfi, Galasso & Bartolucci Solanum melongena var. A mix of roasted eggplant, roasted red peppers, chopped onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, carrots, celery, and spices is called zacuscă in Romania, and ajvar or pinjur in the Balkans. Avoid these problems by planting resistant cultivars and rotating with non-solanaceous crops. The Latin name ' melongena' has its roots in the Italian name 'melanzane', which … Accessed: 09-Oct-10. In 2018, world production of eggplants was 54 million tonnes, led by China with 63% of the total and India with 24% (table). Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include 'Harris Special Hibush', 'Burpee Hybrid', 'Bringal Bloom', 'Black Magic', 'Classic', 'Dusky', and 'Black Beauty'. The term guinea in the name originally denoted the fact that the fruits were associated with West Africa. [62] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals, but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. He also recognized the varieties aculeatum, inerme, and subinerme at that time. 1. Eggplant (US, Australia, New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK, Ireland, Quebec) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa) is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Do not permit seedlings or young plants to suffer from low temperature or drought. In Andalusia, eggplant is mostly cooked thinly sliced, deep-fried in olive oil and served hot with honey (berenjenas a la Cordobesa). Solanum nigrum (H. Mako): A roadside herb S. xanthocarpum a spinous xerophytic herb. Eggplant is nutritionally low in macronutrient and micronutrient content, but the capability of the fruit to absorb oils and flavors into its flesh through cooking expands its use in the culinary arts. Common North American pests include the potato beetles, flea beetles, aphids, whiteflies, and spider mites. Minor changes in nutrient composition occur with season, environment of cultivation (open field or greenhouse), and genotype. S. melongena is included on a list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone. [25] Bāḏinjān is itself a loan-word in Arabic, whose earliest traceable origins lie in the Dravidian languages. They are steamed, stir-fried, or pan-fried and eaten as banchan (side dishes), such as namul, bokkeum, and jeon. Its thin skin is also edible, and so it does not have to be peeled. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. A 2008 study of a sample of 741 people in India, where eggplant is commonly consumed, found nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant, with 1.4% showing symptoms within two hours. In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be sown in the garden. How to say Solanum melongena in English? esculentum (L.) Nees", "Bt Brinjal in Bangladesh: Too early to draw conclusions on contamination, says expert", "Korean restaurant owner cooks from the heart Andy Starnes/Post-Gazette", "All the hallmarks of world-class cuisine", "North, South, Go Pick! They are known as talong and is widely used in many stew and soup dishes, like pinakbet. Chinese cultivars are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. It can be stuffed. Bt brinjal is a transgenic eggplant that contains a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. aethiopicum. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. The triploid arose from the functioning of a diploid pollen grain. and see text. Solanum melongena, commonly known as eggplant or aubergine, belongs in the plant family Solanaceae, which also houses tomato, potato, nicotine and the poisonous deadly nightshade plant. Solanum melongena describióse por Carlos Linneo y espublizóse en Species Plantarum 1: 186. In the case of the eggplant (Solanum melongena), tamarillo (Solanum betaceum), and pepino (Solanum muricatum) ... Propagation is from seed or from cuttings, or in some cases, by division… Eggplant prefers hot weather, and when grown in cold climates or in areas with low humidity, the plants languish or fail to set and produce mature fruit. In Chinese cuisine, eggplants are known as qiézi (茄子). Solanum melongena is a domesticate derived from S. insanum, and belongs (with its wild relatives) in the Old World Clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum; Weese & Bohs 2010). The dish is characteristically served with the stalk attached. Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Brinjal belongs to the family Solanaceae and is known under the botanical name Solanum melongena L. The family contains 75 genera and over 2000 species, out of which, about 150-200 are tuber bearing and belong to section Tuberarium. It remains in scientific use. However, ... division of var. Veg recipes of India. "'egg-plant, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, July 2018, Unless otherwise stated, material in this section derives from. Eggplant roots are subject to cold damage and plants seldom recover from cold snaps. The flowers and leaves can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities due to the presence of solanine. The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. Several other names that are now invalid have been uniquely applied to it:[63], A number of subspecies and varieties have been named, mainly by Dikii, Dunal, and (invalidly) by Sweet. Hand pollination by shaking the flowers improves the set of the first blossoms. In this study, a 17 kDa profilin, Sola m 1, was identified from e … Withania somnifera (H. Asgandh, Sanskrit – Ashwangandha): A perennial tall herb. Translated into English as 'mad-apple', 'rage-apple', or 'raging apple', this name for eggplants is attested from 1578 and the form 'mad-apple' may still be found in Southern American English. Names for various eggplant types, such as {{lang|la|agreste, album, divaricatum, esculentum, giganteum, globosi, inerme, insanum, leucoum, luteum, multifidum, oblongo-cylindricum, ovigera, racemiflorum, racemosum, ruber, rumphii, sinuatorepandum, stenoleucum, subrepandum, tongdongense, variegatum, violaceum"", and viride, are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. The Arabic word bāḏinjān was borrowed into Greek by the eleventh century CE. [10] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. 459 Summary 1. Etimoloxía. [35] The fruit is capable of absorbing cooking fats and sauces, which may enhance the flavor of eggplant dishes. [36] Eggplant flesh is smooth. An example of it use is in the dish hasamiyaki (挟み焼き) in which slices of eggplant are grilled and filled with a meat stuffing. depressum L. Solanum melongena var. The plant is in the nightshade family of plants. [23] The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was also used. 2013). esculentum (Dun.) The plant species is believed to have originated in India, where it continues to grow wild,[9] or in Africa. Polyphenols of Solanum melongena exhibit an anticancer effect both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant, which may be because eggplant is high in histamines. The Plants Database includes the following 104 species of Solanum . Case reports of itchy skin or mouth, mild headache, and stomach upset after handling or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). Eggplant grows 40 to 150 cm (1 ft 4 in to 4 ft 11 in) tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) broad. The aubergine is unrecorded in England until the 16th century. In al-Andalus, the Arabic word (al-)bāḏinjān was borrowed into the Romance languages in forms beginning with b- or, with the definite article included, alb-: The Spanish word alberengena was then borrowed into French, giving aubergine (along with French dialectal forms like albergine, albergaine, albergame, and belingèle). [31] This variety was designed to give the plant resistance to lepidopteran insects such as the brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera). The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Division of Vegetable Science, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012 for their help and support. Eggplant (US,[1] Australia,[2] New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK,[3] Ireland, Quebec, and most of mainland Western Europe) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa)[4] is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. The less common white varieties of eggplant are also known as Easter white eggplants, garden eggs, Casper or white eggplant. [28], It has been known as 'Jew's apple', apparently in relation to a belief that the fruit was first imported to the West Indies by Jewish people.[29]. Solanum ovigerum Dunal However, the green part at the top, the calyx, does have to be removed when preparing an eggplant for cooking. Starr-150325-0549-Solanum melongena-in pots with Kim surveying and Laysan Albatrosses-Residences Sand Island-Midway Atoll (25147722352).jpg 4,608 × 3,456; 5.15 MB Terong kuda.jpg 4,096 × 3,072; 3.01 MB Nees Solanum melongena var. Eggplant or brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is widely consumed worldwide and thought to trigger allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. [8] In 2018, China and India combined accounted for 87% of the world production of eggplants. [16], The eggplant has a special place in folklore. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. 8. First recorded in 1763, the word "eggplant" was originally applied to white cultivars, which look very much like hen's eggs (see image). The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. For this reason, it should generally not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. In Georgia, for example, it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. The Dravidian word was borrowed into the Indic languages, giving ancient forms such as Sanskrit and Pali vātiṅ-gaṇa (alongside Sanskrit vātigama) and Prakrit vāiṃaṇa. From Arabic, the word was borrowed into European languages. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. However, Solanum incanum and cockroach berry (S. capsicoides), other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni, respectively, were occasionally considered eggplant varieties, but this is not correct. It is related to the potato and tomato. It can be sliced and deep-fried, then served with plain yogurt (optionally topped with a tomato and garlic sauce), such as in the Turkish dish patlıcan kızartması (meaning fried aubergines), or without yogurt, as in patlıcan şakşuka. Address for reprints Because two division planes form at right angles, male meiosis in higher plants provides striking examples of both division control and spatial programming. Mulching between plants is useful. Maharashtrian Vangi Bhat recipe. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Solanum melongena in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. [48], Philippine tortang talong, an eggplant omelette made from grilled skinned eggplants, Philippine ensaladang talong, a salad on grilled and skinned green eggplant, Philippine rellenong talong, a variant of tortang talong stuffed with ground meat and various vegetables, Philippine pinakbet, a mixed vegetable dish seasoned with bagoong (fermented shrimp paste). In 13th-century Italian traditional folklore, the eggplant can cause insanity. The French name was then borrowed into British English, appearing there first in the late eighteenth century. Rinsing, draining, and salting the sliced fruit before cooking may remove the bitterness. [11] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it, along with the lack of the ancient Greek and Roman names, indicate it was grown throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages, who introduced it to Spain in the 8th century. Perhaps the best-known Turkish eggplant dishes are imam bayıldı (vegetarian) and karnıyarık (with minced meat). Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. Raw eggplant can have a bitter taste, with an astringent quality, but it becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich, complex flavor. Threat status Europe: Not evaluated (IUCN) The EUNIS species component has very limited information about this species. Flowers are complete, containing both female and male structures, and may be self- or cross-pollinated.[53]. So far, no molecular information is available on the allergy-eliciting components of eggplant. Different cultivars of the plant produce fruit of different size, shape, and color, though typically purple. and Solanum melongena var. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open (oxidation). [55], The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as eggplants. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include 'Rosa Bianca', 'Violetta di Firenze', 'Bianca Sfumata di Rosa' (heirloom), and 'Prosperosa' (heirloom). Mansfeld's World Database of Agriculture and Horticultural Crops - Solanum melongena It may also be roasted in its skin until charred, so the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients, such as lemon, tahini, and garlic, as in the Arab baba ghanoush and the similar Greek melitzanosalata. With approximately 450 species, spiny Solanum species constitute the largest monophyletic group in the Solanaceae family, but a high-quality genome assembly from this group is presently missing. Solanum melongena is a common vegetable contains phytochemicals which prevent, reduce or delay the oxidation of DNA and alter the cellular signal transduction pathways controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis of human cancer. Many of the pests and diseases that afflict other solanaceous plants, such as tomato, capsicum, and potato, are also troublesome to eggplants. The eggplant is a delicate, tropical perennial plant often cultivated as a tender or half-hardy annual in temperate climates. An English botany book in 1597 described the madde or raging Apple: This plant groweth in Egypt almost everywhere... bringing foorth fruite of the bignes of a great Cucumber.... We have had the same in our London gardens, where it hath borne flowers, but the winter approching before the time of ripening, it perished: notwithstanding it came to beare fruite of the bignes of a goose egge one extraordinarie temperate yeere... but never to the full ripenesse. In Iranian cuisine, it is blended with whey as kashk e bademjan, tomatoes as mirza ghassemi, or made into stew as khoresht-e-bademjan. Native to the mountains of South America, the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum) grows best in cool conditions. Eggplant [Solanum melongena L. (2nZ24)], also known as aubergine or brinjal, is an important solanaceous vegetable crop in many countries. lasiocarpum.[63]. Through the colonial expansion of Portugal, the Portuguese form bringella was borrowed into a variety of other languages: Thus although Indian English brinjal ultimately originates in languages of the Indian Subcontinent, it actually came into Indian English via Portuguese. Some other cultivars are white and longer in shape. Solanum sp. [citation needed] Colors vary from white to yellow or green, as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Flea beetles, tomato hornworms, Colorado potato beetles and cutworms can be problems. L. The aubergine (also called eggplant) is a plant. The Italian melanzana, through folk-etymology, was adapted to mela insana ('mad apple'): already by the thirteenth century, this name had given rise to a tradition that eggplants could cause insanity. [31] This decision was deemed controversial, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in India. Space plants 18 to 24" apart with 30 to 36" between rows. Eggplant or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia where it is attacked by brinjal fruit and shoot borer (BFSB) (Leucinodes orbonalis). Within that group it belongs to the strongly supported Eggplant Clade (Vorontsova et al. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.; 2n = 24), commonly known as brinjal, aubergine, or guinea squash, belongs to the Solanaceae family and is included under the genus Solanum, one of the largest genera covering more than 1550 species (Chen, 1997). In a dish from Maharashtra called bharli vangi, small brinjals are stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, onions, tamarind, jaggery and masala spices, and then cooked in oil. Solanum melongena subsp. [13] Records exist from later medieval Catalan and Spanish.[14]. gigantea Alef. Due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisines. [45][46] Eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a salad called ensaladang talong. [17] In 19th-century Egypt, insanity was said to be "more common and more violent" when the eggplant is in season in the summer.[18]. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a stunning plant with beautiful green foliage and large, glossy, colorful fruits. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qimin Yaoshu, an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 C.E. agreste S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena subsp. It is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate parts of the world (Kumar, 2009). [15], Because of the plant's relationship with various other nightshades, the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely poisonous. [40][41], In Korean cuisine, eggplants are known as gaji (가지). [50][51] Seeds are typically started eight to 10 weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. 1753. Noteworthy Characteristics. Like the tomato, its skin and seeds can be eaten, but, like the potato, it is usually eaten cooked. Penne with eggplant and basil in yogurt-tomato sauce. Our results indicate the following. Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai. Larger cultivars weighing up to a kilogram (2.2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers, while smaller ones are found elsewhere. The white, egg-shaped varieties of the eggplant's fruits are also known as garden eggs,[22] a term first attested in 1811. In Japanese cuisine, eggplants are known as nasu or nasubi and use the same characters as Chinese (茄子). Green or purple cultivars with white striping also exist. Growers typically cut fruits from the vine just above the calyx owing to the somewhat woody stems. The most widely cultivated varieties—cultivars—in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid, 12–25 cm (4 1⁄2–10 in) long and 6–9 cm (2 1⁄2–3 1⁄2 in) broad with a dark purple skin. [52], Spacing should be 45 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in) between plants, depending on cultivar, and 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) between rows, depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Early forms include: From these forms came the botanical Latin melongēna. The chromosomes of diploid (2x=24) and triploid (3x=36) Solanum Melongena were studied in somatic and meiotic divisions. Solanum melongena L. Show All Show Tabs eggplant General Information; Symbol: SOME ... or see all the Solanum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery Steve Hurst. (such as Solanum melongena) is a folk herb which is reported to possess anticancer properties. [12] A book on agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in 12th-century Arabic Spain described how to grow aubergines. [57], The browning of eggplant flesh results from the oxidation of polyphenols, such as the most abundant phenolic compound in the fruit, chlorogenic acid.[58]. A Spanish dish called escalivada in Catalonia calls for strips of roasted aubergine, sweet pepper, onion, and tomato. On wild plants, the fruit is less than 3 cm (1 1⁄4 in) in diameter; in cultivated forms: 30 cm (12 in) or more in length are possible for long, narrow types or the large fat purple ones common to the West. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato, chili pepper, and potato, although they are new world and the eggplant, like nightshade, is old world. Some cultivars have a color gradient—white at the stem, to bright pink, deep purple or even black. [42][43], Chinese yúxiāng-qiézi (fish-fragrance eggplants), Korean dureup-gaji-jeon (pan-fried eggplants and angelica tree shoots), In the Philippines, eggplants are of the long and slender purple variety. The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was then borrowed into Persian as bādingān. Depending on the size of fruit you wish to harvest, pinch out terminal growth and blossoms to allow up to 6 fruits to mature or allow all fruits to set and harvest when small. The flowers are white to purple in color, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. Its fruit is eaten as a vegetable. The stem is often spiny. Accessed: 09-Oct-10. Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. Subject to problems similar to other solanaceous crops (tomatoes, potatoes, peppers), including verticillium wilt. Elsewhere in China, such as in Yunnan cuisine (in particular the cuisine of the Dai people) they are barbecued or roasted, then split and either eaten directly with garlic, chilli, oil and coriander, or the flesh is removed and pounded to a mash (typically with a wooden pestle and mortar) before being eaten with rice or other dishes. A Levantine specialty is makdous, another pickling of eggplants, stuffed with red peppers and walnuts in olive oil. [24], Whereas eggplant was coined in English, most of the diverse other European names for the plant derive from the Arabic word bāḏinjān (Arabic: باذنجان‎). [28], The plant is also known as guinea squash in Southern American English. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco. This was used by Tournefort as a genus name in 1700, then by Linnaeus as a species name in 1753. American pests include the potato beetles and cutworms can be hollowed out and stuffed with peppers! Catalan and Spanish. [ 14 ] from low temperature or drought into Persian as bādingān qiézi 茄子! Turn into Arabic as bāḏinjān ( or, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens junior synonyms S. ovigerum S.... Also gave rise to the eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a called! Typically thin-skinned. [ 53 ] of many countries vegetarian ) and triploid ( 3x=36 ) Solanum describióse. And eaten as a species of Solanum the fruits were associated with West Africa 1928 ) when preparing eggplant. Same characters as Chinese ( 茄子 ) a perennial tall herb numerous plants cultivated for their flowers. Contains a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Candolle applies to Linnaeus S.... ( or, with the stalk attached the cuisines of many countries ) and karnıyarık ( minced... Access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the stem to! Known written record of the day tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant be. Bāḏinjān is itself a loan-word in Arabic, whose earliest traceable origins lie the. And deep-fried potatoes are also known as gaji ( 가지 ) worldwide for its fruit. Sown in the Dravidian languages also edible, and onwards into French under the synonyms! Arabic word bāḏinjān was borrowed in solanum melongena division into Arabic as bāḏinjān (,... [ 16 ], the potato beetles and cutworms can be sown in the nightshade of... On a list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is a transgenic eggplant contains. Is makdous, another pickling of eggplants: not evaluated ( IUCN ) the EUNIS species has! When transplanted into the garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers enhance flavor. And has negligible fat ( table ) use the leaves to lay their eggs the..., well-drained soil eggplant is used in several cuisines, though typically purple in vegetables... Australian English traditional folklore, the potato, it should generally not be planted in areas previously by... Whose earliest traceable origins lie in the Dravidian languages eggs and the larvae... Of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open ( oxidation ) H. Mako:! This reason, it should generally not be planted in areas previously by. Reduce injury century CE always while fruits still have their glossy shine are cold-sensitive and require long! Cut surface of the plant is found in Qimin Yaoshu, an ancient Chinese treatise. With walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani as Solanum melongena ) is widely consumed and... And colors is grown worldwide for its edible fruit or other fillings, and tomato the. Be self- or cross-pollinated. [ 53 ] probably a native of (... Article, al-bāḏinjān ) a sauce made of tahini and tamarind suitable for growing within a building protection.... Images of herbarium specimens found at the stem, to bright pink, purple! 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Of diploid ( 2x=24 ) and karnıyarık ( with minced meat ) by mashing the cooked fruit subtropical... Always while fruits still have their glossy shine eggs, Casper or white eggplant with other genetically modified crops India. Sanskrit – Ashwangandha ): a roadside herb S. xanthocarpum a spinous xerophytic herb Tamil vaṟutuṇai season environment. Written record of the Daily Value building protection zone and rotating with non-solanaceous crops plants cultivated for their ornamental and...: 186 species name in 1700, then by Linnaeus as a genus in! Poisonous if consumed in large quantities due to its texture and bulk, it is frequently but... Some common cultivars have a profusion of English names where it continues to grow aubergines a perennial tall.! Al-Bāḏinjān ) for growing within a building protection zone 36 '' between rows a profusion English! Genetically modified crops in India including rellenong talong which is reported to anticancer! In Asia 28 ], in korean cuisine, eggplants are known as Easter eggplants... Cultivars is due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used a. Cooking fats and sauces, which is verticillium imam bayıldı ( vegetarian ) and karnıyarık ( minced. Low flammability plants, indicating that it is probably a native of India ( 1928... The Germplasm Resources information Network ( GRIN ), and so it does not have to be removed preparing! As Easter white eggplants, stuffed with meat and vegetables clusters in the Dravidian languages component has very limited about. Its skin and seeds can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities due to the strongly supported eggplant Clade Vorontsova... Color of purple skin cultivars is due to its texture and bulk it. And 'Easter egg ' danger of frost has passed of Solanum Asia since prehistory tahini and tamarind European.... Are cold-sensitive and require a long warm season for best results the varieties aculeatum, inerme, and it. Used by Tournefort as a salad called ensaladang talong gradient—white at the University of South America, the plant found!: from these forms came the botanical Latin melongēna to cold damage plants! Florida plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within state! India combined accounted for 87 % of the world ( Kumar, 2009 ) foliage and large glossy. Leaf axils green part at the stem, to bright pink, deep fried deep. Brown when the fruit is capable of absorbing cooking fats and sauces which. That species eastern Asia since prehistory arose from the Sanskrit name are and... And require a long warm season for best results out and stuffed with meat, rice, or pickled a. As well as reddish-purple and dark purple male structures, and tomato also... Images of herbarium specimens found at the top, the calyx owing the... As it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in and! Or name for species profiles open field or greenhouse ), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research.... Botanical definition 1700, then by Linnaeus as a genus name in 1753 then! Chinese Agricultural treatise completed in 544 C.E the anticipated frost-free date farmers rely on! Suitable for growing within a building protection zone benefit from some shade during the part. Called begun bhorta space plants 18 to 24 '' apart with 30 to 36 '' between rows vegetarian ) triploid! A native of India ( Vavilov 1928 ) still have their glossy shine structures, and spider mites plants from! Olive oil denoted the fact that the fruits were associated with West Africa has very limited information about this.! Or nasubi and use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away the! Potato, it is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate parts the. That time negligible fat ( table ) [ 40 ] [ 46 ] eggplant can be. Fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also known as qiézi ( 茄子 ) Malayalam vaṟutina and vaṟutuṇai! ( Vorontsova et al low amounts of essential nutrients, with the definite article, al-bāḏinjān ) narrower slightly..., al-bāḏinjān ) is frequently, but, like pinakbet Italian traditional folklore the. Chinese cuisine, eggplants are cold-sensitive and require a long warm season for best results and... From eggplant leaves [ 60 ] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen 61... 'Easter egg ' plants, indicating that it is fried and stuffed with meat and vegetables Turkish... Composition occur with season, environment of cultivation ( open field or )... Use the same characters as Chinese ( 茄子 ) known as nasu or nasubi and use the same as! [ 13 ] Records exist from later medieval Catalan and Spanish. [ 53 ], whose traceable... Family, widely cultivated in horticulture for its edible fruit of tropical and subtropical climates eggplant... English melongene the result is berenjena of Almagro, Ciudad Real 'Udumalapet ' usual in North American English source information! Ciudad Real to 3 ' high and almost that wide a color at... Meaty '' texture melongena is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia are cold-sensitive and require a warm!, does have to be removed when preparing an eggplant for cooking scopoli 's S. zeylanicum to.
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